How Marine Debris Impedes Coastal Tourism and Economic Development
Tetra Tech’s Gina Green and Bryan Stirrat discussed how marine debris impedes economic development, stifles tourism, and defiles biodiversity. Gina, our senior associate of environment and natural resources and expert in marine and coastal management, and Bryan, our Solid Waste Solutions practice group leader, detail how effective management and inclusive solutions can benefit and stabilize coastal communities around the world. All opinions expressed in this post are the authors’ own.
This post originally ran on Devex.
Around the world, marine debris costs an estimated $13 billion a year, mainly through its adverse effect on fisheries, tourism, and biodiversity. In Indonesia alone, the United Nations Environment Program estimates plastic pollution could adversely affect tourism, fisheries, and shipping sectors by as much as $1.3 billion.
If our work in international development has taught us anything, it’s that no matter where you live, marine debris is like a leaky faucet. You can call a plumber and fix the problem, or you can keep cleaning up after it forever. When it comes to marine plastic, we need to fix the source of the issue by dealing with the waste before it reaches the sea.
To do so requires a solid waste management plan that allows tourism and economic development to flourish, without turning on new faucets of waste.
Despite international commitments to reduce waste at the Our Oceans Conference in November 2018, there is still much work to be done. Solvents, fertilizers, toxic sludge, and other wastes entering coastal ecosystems have produced more than 400 marine dead zones, measuring more than 245,000 square kilometers (94,500 square miles), a combined area greater than that of the United Kingdom. That is the equivalent of one garbage truck full of debris being dumped into the ocean every minute. Plastic particles have been found in hundreds of marine species, including fish and shellfish sold for human consumption.
Our work to improve the management of fisheries and marine resources allows us to see the scope of the problem firsthand. When we walk along the beaches in Bali or take the ferries from fishing ports, the beaches and bays are littered with garbage and debris.
The importance of taking a holistic approach
Tetra Tech operates throughout Southeast Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean to support the development and management of marine biodiversity and sustainable fisheries through projects funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Our work takes us to places where it is critical to prevent pollution and marine debris from impacting the local communities. Within our solid waste solutions group, we studied the problem of marine waste and determined that quick, focused action is essential to mitigate adverse economic impacts.
Moreover, marine waste is most prevalent in developing countries where money hasn’t traditionally been devoted to solid waste management. Tetra Tech is committed to attacking this problem in developing countries, with support from stakeholders worldwide.
Only inclusive solutions can stop the flow
Our work across Southeast Asia to strengthen regional cooperation to combat illegal fishing and promote sustainable fisheries has taught us that behaviors can only change when all actors are at the table. Although women are an essential component of Southeast Asia’s fisheries workforce, they are often excluded from the decision-making process.
Working with USAID on The Oceans and Fisheries Partnership, we developed guidelines on how to incorporate gender issues in all aspects of the seafood supply chain. Many of these same lessons apply to our work to reduce marine waste as many waste pickers and sorters are women.
For this reason, during a discussion to reduce plastic waste held by The Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the U.S. State Department, we recommended they convene a series of solid waste workshops throughout Southeast Asia to bring together stakeholders at every level.
These workshops would ensure that solid waste management is addressed at the national, provincial, and municipal levels through a mix of public and private sector funding sources. These workshops would introduce the planning process and act as a forum to discuss current problems and potential solutions and identify pilot areas.
One potential location for these workshops is Bali, where tourism has grown from 3.5 million visitors in 2005, to an expected 18.2 million by 2020. Bali generates 3,800 tons of solid waste every day, and only 60 percent of it ends up in landfills. To succeed in Bali, we will need to include representatives from all stakeholders.
The need for effective management
While tourism is an important engine of economic growth, in places such as Bali, the use of plastics and other waste materials is outpacing local capacities for waste management. Therefore, effective management of solid waste is essential in our efforts to protect public health and environmental stewardship. An integrated solid waste system should include collection, materials recovery, processing, and disposal. The plan should include methods for stimulating the economy by evaluating the recycled materials for sale, reuse, and possibly even conversion to energy.
In Indonesia, we worked with communities in several marine protected areas on the USAID Sustainable Ecosystems Advanced Project developing marine tourism guides that included best practices for reducing waste and keeping beaches clean. Globally, we are working with the United Nations Environment Programme to develop a comprehensive solid waste management guide that documents international waste management concepts, best practices, and technologies. The guide is intended to assist local government leaders, workers, and organizations in low- and middle-income countries with waste management principles.
Once we see what can be achieved in Southeast Asia, we will use this approach as a guide to fix the faucet of plastic waste once and for all. By crafting inclusive, holistic solutions, we can stop the flow of marine debris, benefitting other coastal countries throughout the developing world.
Designing a better landfill for the Northern Mariana Islands
The Island of Tinian in the South Pacific has only 3,500 residents but generates 2,623 tons of mixed debris per year—much of which was finding its way into the ocean. Historically, solid waste in Tinian was placed in an unpermitted dump site, which operated as an open burn dump.
Working with the Northern Mariana Islands, Tetra Tech designed a new landfill for the island that complies with international standards. Given the high volume of rainfall that Tinian receives—approximately 81 inches per year—leachate water, which has percolated through solid waste, and surface water management were key design considerations. A leachate treatment system consisting of constructed wetlands was designed to receive an estimated 32,470 gallons per day and help stop the flow of debris into the Pacific when the landfill is constructed.